The 2002 Petition to Reschedule Cannabis (Marijuana)

Dependence Liability

Basic research on rewarding, tolerance and withdrawal

In recent years, scientists were able to show that animals do self-administer THC under certain conditions. Basic animal research also shows that cannabis produces tolerance and withdrawal. This research helps explain abuse of cannabis and dependency in humans. However, basic research cannot predict how pronounced these effects will be in humans and whether they are stronger or less strong compared to other drugs such as caffeine, nicotine and heroin. More...

Dependency compared to other drugs

Compared to other widely used drugs (alcohol, tobacco, opiates) a smaller percentage of cannabis users become dependent. Dependency is also less severe compared to many other legal and illegal drugs. The relatively low dependence liability of cannabis is widely recognized. More...


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